24 June - Vichy France signs armistice terms with Italy. Nouméa served as a headquarters of the United States Navy and Army in the South Pacific,[71] and as a repair base for Allied vessels. Christofferson, Thomas R., and Michael S. Christofferson. [104], In 1941, Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel, an early proponent of eugenics and euthanasia, and a member of Jacques Doriot's French Popular Party (PPF),[citation needed] advocated for the creation of the Fondation Française pour l'Étude des Problèmes Humains (French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems), using connections to the Pétain cabinet. [117], Proportionally, either number makes for a lower death toll than in some other countries (in the Netherlands, 75% of the Jewish population was murdered). After attempts to encourage them to join the Allies were rebuffed by the defenders, a sharp fight erupted between Vichy and Allied forces. After Liberation, some of its units were merged with the Free French Army to form the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS, Republican Security Companies), France's main anti-riot force. From then on, Jewish people were considered "second-zone citizens[173] ". About half of them worked in German agriculture, where food rations were adequate and controls were lenient. Executions without trials and other forms of "popular justice" were harshly criticised immediately after the war, with circles close to Pétainists advancing the figures of 100,000, and denouncing the "Red Terror", "anarchy", or "blind vengeance". After the liberation, France was swept for a short period with a wave of executions of Collaborationists. Peter Jackson & Simon Kitson ‘The paradoxes of foreign policy in Vichy France’ in Jonathan Adelman(ed), Flood, Christopher "Pétain and de Gaulle" pages 88–110 from, Cornick, Martyn "Fighting Myth with Reality: The Fall of France, Anglophobia, and the BBC" pages 65–87 from, French Colonial Soldiers in German Prisoner-of-War Camps (1940–1945), Raffael Scheck, 2010, French History, p421, John F. Sweets, Choices in Vichy France: The French Under Nazi Occupation (New York, 1986), p. 33. A Vichy law of 4 October 1940 authorised internments of foreign Jews on the sole basis of a prefectoral order,[92] and the first raids took place in May 1941. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The shortage of volunteers led the Vichy government to pass a law in September 1942 that effectively deported workers to Germany, where they constituted fifteen percent of the labour force by August 1944. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. One of these rules, for example, stated that: The contractors shall make the following statements: they are of French nationality, are not Jewish, nor married to Jewish in the sense of the laws and ordinances in force [under Vichy, ed. Their idea was not to make of France an antisemitic country. The armistice divided France into occupied and unoccupied zones: northern and western France, including the entire Atlantic coast, was occupied by Germany, and the remaining two-fifths of the country was under the control of the French government with the capital at Vichy under Pétain. [19], To advance his message, Marshal Pétain frequently spoke on French radio. The media were tightly controlled and promoted anti-Semitism, and, after June 1941, anti-Bolshevism. The first action of that government was to re-establish republican legality throughout metropolitan France. Government agencies had to fire married women employees. Family allowances that had begun in the 1930s were continued, and became a vital lifeline for many families; it was a monthly cash bonus for having more children. The July 1942 Vel' d'Hiv Roundup is a tragic example of how the French police did the Nazi work, going even further than what military orders demanded (by sending children to Drancy internment camp, last stop before the extermination camps). Vichy France. Evacuated from Paris to the resort town of Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre) in the southern part of Metropolitan France, (including French Algeria) it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as its colonies.[3]. [12][13][14] Diplomatic relations with Great Britain had been severed since 8 July 1940, after the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir. This was 50 times the actual costs of the occupation garrison. It raised the prospect of Frenchmen shooting at Frenchmen, raising fears of a civil war. Parliament met at Vichy on July 9–10 to consider France’s future. At Vichy, Pétain established an authoritarian government that reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy. Pétain was put on trial for treason by the new Provisional government, and sentenced to death; this was commuted to life imprisonment by de Gaulle. The government answered by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting youth in urban areas. On 21 April 1945 General de Lattre ordered his forces to take Sigmaringen. This first choice having failed, they turned to Henri Giraud shortly before the landing in North Africa on 8 November 1942. Consequently, on 8 June, British and Commonwealth forces invaded Syria and Lebanon. Within days, it became clear that French military forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent. The Free French, concerned that the Allies might decide to put France under administration of the Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories, strove to establish quickly the Provisional Government of the French Republic. Pétainistes, on the other hand, were direct supporters of Marshal Pétain rather than of Germany (although they accepted Pétain's state collaboration). Since Adolf Hitler's overall territorial ambitions were not limited to recovering Alsace-Lorraine, and since Britain was never brought to terms, these peace negotiations never took place. The territory under the control of the Vichy government was the unoccupied, southern portion of France south of the Line of Demarcation, as established by the Armistice of 22 June 1940, and the overseas French territories, such as French North Africa, which was "an integral part of Vichy", and where all antisemitic Vichy's laws were also implemented. They were used by the Gestapo on various raids, among them the August 1941 raid in the 11th arrondissement of Paris, which resulted in 3,200 foreign and 1,000 French Jews being interned in various camps, including Drancy. [41], While this debate continued, the government was forced to relocate several times, to avoid capture by advancing German forces, finally reaching Bordeaux. [151], Collaborationist paramilitary and political organisations, such as the Milice and the Service d'ordre légionnaire, were also dissolved. The French forces were to remain under the overall direction of the German armed forces. Others, like Joseph Darnand, were strong anti-Semites and overt Nazi sympathizers. Many convicted Collaborationists were brought to the Free French, to use port. Responsibilities in the southern zone in August 1942 committed suicide in September 1994 with involvement in in... Government in Exile in 1945 through a series of consultations between Giraud and de Gaulle, the... 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